Monday, April 28, 2008

Welding Cast Iron

One of the most difficult to weld material is the cast iron. The carbon content of cast iron is 2-4%. This is the reason why cast iron is very difficult to weld.

When welding cast iron, the casting must be either kept cool or be allowed to cool slowly.

Temperature is very important factor in welding cast iron. At 1450 degrees F, cast iron tends to crack. Though during welding, the temperature reaches 1450 degrees F or above, it should not hold at that emperature for a long period of time, otherwise, cracking will occur.

Normally, cast iron is preheated prior to welding. The joint edges are preheated up to at least lesser than the critical temperature which is 1450 degrees F. The joint edges is preheated slowly and uniformly. Rosebud torch is advisable to be used. When the joint is uniformly preheated at required temperature, stitch welding (at low current) will commence. Stitch weld shall be done as short as possible until the weldjoint is completed. After completion, cool the weld at very slow rate of cooling. Covering it with welding blanket will be useful. Note: Do not cool the weld at high rate (by using water), otherwise, cracking will occur.

Another way of welding is by not preheating the joint. The joint should be kept cool but not cold. The temperature should be above normal temperature which is at least 95-100 degrees F. during welding, the temperature shall be controlled to 95-105 degrees F range. Don't make it hotter than 105 degrees F. Stitch welding shall also be done as hsort as possible. After completion of welding, cool it down at low cooling rate. Do not increase the cooling rate by using water, otherwise, crack may occur. Covering it with welding blanket is also helpful.

Another important factor in welding cast iron is choosing the right electrode. Nickel-type electrode is commonly used for this job.

NOTE: This is just a guideline. The author shall not be held liable for any outcome of this guidelines once it's used in the industry. It is advisable that PQR shall be run and WPS shall be prepared in accordance to the above guidelines to check if the metallurgical properties of the weld is acceptable.

Friday, April 25, 2008

10 WELDERS needed in Bintan INDONESIA

Below is an email which gives one more proof that WELDER is in demand. so what are you waiting for guys? Come and join us. Enroll to our Welder Course. Email us at

This is an excerpt from OWI GROUP email. Please contact her directly if you are interested.....

We currently have openings for Welders (x10) for our oil & gas EPC client in Bintan, Indonesia, and would like to enquire your interest.

You should have good experience in platforms .

Basic Info

- Work Location in Bintan , Indonesia

- Working hours is 48 hours per week min

- USD 8.50 per hour, overtime rate at USD 10 per hour

- Single status accomodation, transport, monthly food allowance of USD 220, medical benefits, insurance, visa applications and mob / demob air tickets will be provided

- 6 months contract, subjected to extension

Should you be acceptable of the salary package, please submit a copy of your latest updated CV, and advise your earliest availability.

As there are many openings, kindly forward this email to any keen counterparts.

* We regret to inform only short listed candidates will be notified.

Thanks & Best Regards

Wong Yanyi (Ms)
Technical Recruiter
OWI Group (S'pore) Pte Ltd
60 Albert Street
#08-08 / 09 Albert Complex
Singapore 189969
Tel: +65 6336 0880
Fax: +65 6336 7667

Tuesday, April 22, 2008


Hey guys, 52 more days to go for the Welding Inspector's Course. A lot of Welding Inspector Job vacancies are waiting out there!! This is the best opportunity for you! Grab it now and you will see your reward in future!!! Contact us for booking at

Friday, April 18, 2008

STRUCTURAL WELDERS needed in Singapore

Hey guys, Singapore needs Structural Welders (click the title above to see the job opening).

Time is running, come and get that qualification. Enroll now for welder's training at PWTC, contact us at

Wednesday, April 16, 2008


Do you know how in demand a Welding Inspector is? Click the title above, and in the search column, type job, and welding insepctor, and you can find job vacancies for welding inspector around the world for filipinos.

DO YOU WANT TO BE ONE OF THEM? JOIN US FOR THE UPCOMING WELDING INSPECTOR'S COURSE ON JUNE 16-20, 2008 to start your career as a Welding Inspector.

Contact us for booking at


59 more days to go for the most awaited WELDING INSPECTOR'S COURSE... contact us for booking at


Below is an email of my previous boss. He is looking for Site QC Engineer. If you are interested, please contact him personally.

Richard Kemp wrote:

Hello Jhun,

Hope all is well with you. In relation to the below email history would you by any chance know of anyone that may meet the requirements setforth. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

With best regards,

Richard Kemp
General Manager
WISco SE Asia
Bus: +65 6479 8403
Mobile: +65 9152 6015

I would be most grateful if you could present Filipino candidate CV's in relation to the below job description. A Good history of E&I experience will be a big plus. This assignment request should last 21/2 to 3 years. The assigned location is in Qatar. Looking forward to hearing to hearing from you.

Mission: The role of the Site QC Engineer is to liaise with all construction QC personnel to ensure all quality functions of the project within the guidelines of the Project Procedures and Project specific quality documents.
Reports to: Site Quality Manager
He shall:
a) Ensure that Quality Control Systems are implemented and maintained in accordance with the defined project standards and specifications.
b) Foresee action to prevent the occurrence of any nonconformance.
c) Review the preventative actions recommended in nonconformance reports, follow-up and verify corrective actions to prevent reoccurrence of nonconformities.
d) Populate, administer and control the site nonconformance control database.
e) Collate information to be included in weekly, bi-weekly and monthly reports.
f) Initiate, record and provide solutions for quality problems.
g) Ensure that all QC personnel including sub-contractors follow the quality control system.
h) Carry out inspection surveillances on sub-contractors premises.
i) Expedite and review the preparation of ITP’s and Field Inspection Procedures.
j) Liaise with JV Company assigned QC personnel to ensure that specified requirements are complied with.
k) Witness Welder and Welding Procedure Qualifications.
l) Ensure welders are qualified to the material, dimensions and welding processes being used.
m) Ensure Material Traceability measures are being recorded for all permanent material.
n) Ensure all welding consumables are correctly stored, controlled and issued.
o) Conduct or join periodic audits on site activities.
p) Day to day site surveillance.
q) Monitor and follow-up on all inspection records that are to be uploaded into the Comet mechanical completions database.
r) Be proactive in the compilation of construction dossiers.
s) Liaise with site QC Engineers on the day to day functioning of inspection activities.
t) Expedite all QC activities to ensure there are no compromises to quality.

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Thinkenergy is looking for TIG WELDER

Hello again! Since you last visited our site, we have recently received
a job from one of our clients that could be a potential fit for your background, or for someone
you know. Please read the following and apply accordingly:

Position: Welder : Piping
Priority: HIGH
Job #: 65768JM1

APPLY TO THIS JOB NOW click the link above

To see other WELDERS jobs click here:
copy and paste the below link.

from: thinkenergy group

Monday, April 14, 2008


I have one more proof that WELDERS ARE IN DEMAND LOCALLY AND OVERSEAS. Below news was taken from Cebu Daily News.


email us for booking:

Below news was an excerpt from Inquirer.

By Cris Evert Lato
Cebu Daily News
First Posted 01:42pm (Mla time) 02/27/2008

CEBU CITY, Philippines - The local and international demand for highly skilled welders has prompted private and public institutions to offer welding courses to interested individuals and companies.

Girlie Morano, assistant administrative officer of Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Tesda) Region 7, said they continue to have trainees for welding at Tesda training center under Training for Work Scholarships project.

Morano said the center has 25 trainees in partnership with Aboitiz Construction Group-Metaphil Division (Metaphil).

The training lasts for two months and teaches shield metal arch welding (SMAW), the basic welding course.

The center was able to produce 125 SMAW graduates last year, 50 of whom were able to earn jobs in Australia.

On the other hand, the University of Cebu (UC) has tied up with Norwegian company, Unitor to establish a welding school.

UC president Augusto Go said the partnership enabled the university to be the recipient of free equipment from a group of Norwegian shipowners.

Go said UC has invested P20 million in additional equipment and machineries for the school.

“(We established the school) to take advantage of the high demand for welders in Australia and Canada,” he told Cebu Daily News.

Aside from international opportunities for welders, Go said graduates of welding courses can also get jobs from Cebu-based companies such as Metaphil and Tsuneishi Heavy Industries in Balamban town, northern Cebu.

Lawyer Baldomero Estenzo, welding school manager, said the demand for welders will continue as “welding is a support industry for shipping.”

The school will officially start classes on the second week of March 2008 and can accommodate a total of 14 students at a time since there are 14 welding machines available, he said.

Fees range from P2, 500 for one-day course to P28,000 for a two-week course.

Engineer Celso Hayag, training director, said students admitted to the school should have basic welding skills since the school will be teaching advanced welding courses.

He said the welding school has five instructors capable of teaching advanced welding courses and have underwent series of trainings with Unitor personnel.

Go said more job opportunities will be made available to skilled welders in the Visayas and Mindanao as Korean company, Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction Corporation builds a $2 billion shipyard complex in Mindanao.

Edward Dampor Sr., general manager of Brilliant Metal Craft and Machine Design (BMC), said his institution is also preparing students to be more equipped as countries including Denmark, New Zealand, Japan and Middle East need more welders.

Dampor, a recipient of Galing Pinoy Award of Tesda 7, said there is close to a million job opportunities for welders worldwide.

In the Philippines, he said, around 300,000 welders are in demand with Subic in Pampanga needing most of the welders.

Dampor said a 45-day SMAW course costs P30,000 while a three-month advanced welding course costs P63,000.


HEATS is looking for Mechanical Engineer (fresh graduates are welcome). Pls. respond to this ads if you are interested, or email your cv and asking salary to

Location of Work: TARLAC CITY (preferably live near to this place)
Salary: State your asking salary

62 more days to go for WELDING INSPECTOR COURSE

The WELDING INSPECTOR'S COURSE which is scheduled on June 16-20 is 62 more days to go!!!

What are you waiting for? Come and join us the course!!! This is a preparation for your dreamed overseas job.

contact us:

Sunday, April 13, 2008


Beginner – P5,000 to P8,000
Experienced – P8,000 to P12,000
Experienced and CSWIP or AWS Certified – P15,000 to P40,000 depending on company

First timers – P30,000 to P40,000
Experienced – P40,000 to P60,000
Experienced and CSWIP or AWS Certified – P60,000 up to P250,000

So, what are you waiting for?






Friday, April 11, 2008

Welding Inspector's Course Schedule

Two months to go! Contact me at if you are interested. Click the title above for the TRAINING DETAILS.

Thursday, April 10, 2008

When should I use 308L, 309L or 316L filler metal?

308L (including ER308LSi) is predominately used on austenitic stainless steels, such as types 301, 302, 304, 305 and cast alloys CF-8 and CF-3. For high temperature applications such as in the electrical power industry, the high carbon 308H electrode provides better creep resistance than does 308L.

316L (including ER316LSi) filler metal should be used with 316L and 316 base metals. CF-8M and CF-3M are the cast equivalents of 316 and 316L, respectively.

Use 309L (including ER309LSi) when joining mild steel or low alloy steel to stainless steels, for joining dissimilar stainless steels such as 409 to itself or to 304L stainless, as well as for joining 309 base metal. CG-12 is the cast equivalent of 309. Some 308L applications may be substituted with 309L filler metal, but 316L or 316 applications generally require molybdenum and 309L contains no molybdenum.

Type 347 stainless steel filler metal is ideal for 347 and 321 base materials because it matches these stabilized grades. CF-8C is the cast equivalent of 347. Type 347 filler metal is also suitable most 308L filler metal applications.

(excerpts from: Lincoln Electric)

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Welding Oven

The frequently asked question about welding oven is, why welding oven is needed?

Welding Oven is very critical to any welding job especially when low hydrogen electrodes are being used. Hydrogen cracking can be avoided by having this stuff and by baking the electrode and store it in a holding oven to keep low hydrogen electrodes dry. Hydrogen cracking is likely to occur when the low hydrogen electrodes that are used are wet or the moisture content is above the required limit for a low hydrogen electrode. The moisture content will be controlled if the low hydrogen electrodes are baked and stored in a holding oven prior to usage.


There is a notion about benchmarking wherein you will just visit a company and try to imitate their practices and hope for improvement. Remember that benchmarking is a mutual learning process. You must ensure that both parties will learn from each other to attain its maximum benefits.

Suggestion for Benchmarking

Review the processes under study and identify your best practices as well as your practices that need improvement.

Come up with a list of prospective companies, whom you think has the best approaches to the process under study.

Take a look also on what your competitors are doing (not directly, of course) (I suggest you visit companies who won the “Philippine Quality Award”. They are open to those who want to benchmark their practices).

Come up with your benchmarking objectives and communicate it with your prospective companies so that they will know the purpose of your visit.

Make an itinerary of your visit and communicate it to the company in advance before the visit (one week lead time is preferred). You must list down in advance, all the process details needed to be observed.

During the visit, be able to share first your best practices so that they can also learn from you and brief them on your benchmarking objectives. Stick with the itinerary and note down all the observations based on the company’s actual practices. You must ensure that the objectives are met before you leave the company.

After the visit, compare your practices against the companies you’ve visited. It is important that you have a judgment criteria on its applicability whether you will adopt the process 100%, modify the process to suit you own, or stick with you own process and find some other ways to improve.

Implement the best applicable practices and monitor the results.

Don’t forget to thank the companies you have benchmarked and report to them the improvement you have made based on their inputs.

After a series of continual improvements, repeat step 1.


High-paying jobs await HS graduates who takes vocational courses

As what I am telling since I started this site, WELDING is one of the high-paying jobs in overseas especially in Middle East. The news (SEE BELOW NEWS HEADLINE FROM PHILIPPINE STAR, or CLICK THE TITLE ABOVE TO GO DIRECTLY TO PHILIPPINE STAR) is one of the proof that what I am saying is a reality.

The Welding Training Institute of Tarlac will soon to open to cater the needs of these High School graduates who want to pursue their welding career here and in overseas.

If you are from Tarlac and keen to study or keen to take a Welding Trainig Course (Shielded Metal Arc Welding-SMAW), just keep me informed in this site and I will help you build your future in welding as a WELDER, for those degree holder who who want to pursue their Welding Inspetion and QA/QC Career, I can help you build your future in Welding Inspection. I will run a Welding Inspector's Course on June 16-20. Come and join me in the training. Keep me informed in this site so that I can cater your needs.

The Welding Training Institute of Tarlac will soon to open in Tarlac City. You are welcome to attend all the training in my Institution once it is started.


High-paying jobs await HS graduates who take vocational courses

Tuesday, April 8, 2008
High-paying jobs abroad await new high school graduates who will opt for shorter but in demand vocational courses, the local recruitment industry reported yesterday.

Recruitment companies said Filipino high school graduates who take vocational courses that are in demand in money-rich countries in the Middle East will have a better a chance at lucrative employment abroad.

Lito Soriano, president of LBS-E Recruitment, said high school graduates should consider taking technical vocational courses at this time if they want lucrative job opportunities.

“The Philippines can take advantage of the pressing need for skilled workers in trillion-dollar projects in the Middle East if many of our high school graduates will shift to schools offering tech-voc subjects like auto servicing, technical drawing/drafting, building wire installation, shielded metal arc welding, machining, pipefitting, metal craft, and carpentry,” Soriano pointed out.

At the moment, Soriano said the country is unable to meet job orders abroad due to the shortage of workers with vocational skills. “Recruitment companies are already competing with each other for the very few skilled workers for their job orders mainly from the Middle East,” he disclosed.

Soriano explained that most foreign employers are looking for highly-qualified construction workers such as welders, flame cutters, pipe fitters, and carpenters due to construction booms in various countries abroad.

He called on the government to undertake massive training programs to enable the country to meet the growing global demand for highly skilled workers. — Mayen Jaymalin

Monday, April 7, 2008

What is Quality?

From the ISO 8402 Definition

Quality is:

The totality of characteristics of an item that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs

Sunday, April 6, 2008

Lamellar tearing

Occurence of step-like crack. This problem involves poor "through thickness" ductility and visually occurs in tee or corner joints thick ferritic steels where high shrinkage starins act through the plate thickness in combination with parent metal inclusion.

Saturday, April 5, 2008

What is Film Artefacts?

Film artefacts are images form during radiography and film processing which are not a defect or a change in component thickness.

Example of film artefacts are;

Crimp Marks
Drying Marks
Diffraction Mottling
Dirty Intensifying Screens
Static Marks
Chemical Splashes
Water splashes

Causes of Weld Spatters

The following are some of the causes of weld spatters.

1.) Current is excessive
2.) The electrode is damp
3.) Contamination
4.) Arc blow

Thursday, April 3, 2008

Two Types of Testing

1.) Destructive Testing
2.) Non-destructive Testing

As the word implies, specimens tested by destructive testing, the specimens are destroyed during the test and are worthless after the test. Example of destructive testing are; bent test, tensile test etc

The quality of specimens are tested without destruction. Example of non-destructive testing are; radiographic testing, magnetic particle testing, penetrant testing, ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing

Each method of NDT (Non-destructive Testing) has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the method to be used depends on the data of items to be tested.

Blogger UT-Man is an expert in UT and other NDT methods.

Welding Inspector's Course Schedule

I will be conducting Welding Inspector's Course on June 16-20, 2008 @ Sn. Vicente, Tarlac City.

If you are interested in attending this course, please feel free to contact me or post in this site.

This course is intended for graduate engineers, engineering students, graduate of any 4 year degree who wants to pursue their career in Welding Inspection and QA/QC.

The course content are; Duties and responsibilities of a welding inspector; welding processes; weld defects; types of steel; weldability; heat treatment; visual inspection; testing parent metals and welds; destructive tests; NDT techniques; welder and procedure approval; codes and standards; safe working practices

The course Fee is P5,000.00 inclusive of snacks, lunch and training material.

Causes of Lack of Fusion

1.) Joint preparation is too narrow
2.) Insuficient cleaning of weld joint
3.) Oily weld joints
4.) Poor welding technique
5.) Magnetic Arc Blow
6.) Wrong welding parameter settings

What is Welding Discontinuity and Welding Defects?

Discontinuity - an objective lack of material, an interruption in the physical consistence of a part.

Defect - an excessive conditions, outside the acceptance limits, which risks to compromise the stability or the functionality of the welded structure

Tuesday, April 1, 2008

TIG Welding

Advantages of TIG Welding

High quality welds, low distortion
Easy to mechanize and automate
Flexibility and ease of heat control
All metals, all positions

Limitations of TIG Welding
Lower deposition rates
Good skills required
Sensitive to cleanliness and contamination
Arc blow sensitive

The Tungsten Electrode in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or Tig) can make contact with a Direct Current (DC) power supply either at the positive (+) or at the negative (-) terminal. In the first case the connection is for DCEP (electrode positive) or reverse polarity. In the second one for DCEN (electrode negative) or straight polarity.

30% of the heat is concentrated in the workpiece
70% of the heat in concentrated in the tungsten electrode
Shallow penetration
Wide weld area

70% of the heat is concentrated in the workpiece
30% of the heat is concentrated in the tungsten electrode
Deep penetration
Narrow weld area

Tungsten Electrodes
A few tungsten alloys are used as electrodes for GTAW (tig welding). They are non consumable as they do not enter, intentionally, in the composition of the weld pool. Their function is limited to carry the currents employed, to stand the heat of the arc without melting and to provide electrons by thermionic emission.

Filler Wire
Manual GTAW is often performed autogenously (without added filler metal) when the joint requires only fusion of the abutting ends. However when needed, filler material can be added manually from the side, right in the weld puddle, by alternatively introducing the wire tip into the arc and withdrawing it.

Shielding Gases
The shielding gas is provided continuously through the torch to protect the molten weld metal, the tungsten electrode and the filler wire tip, if used, from air contamination. Backup shielding gas may be provided if necessary on the underside of the weld to purge and displace surrounding air.

Shielding is always needed but it may be critical especially for highly reactive metals like titanium that would be promptly oxidized and ruined if heated in air. To weld titanium by GTAW use is made of glove boxes purged with shielding gas of the highest purity before weld start or of trailing shields, specially designed accessories that provide a sufficient gas trail to protect the welded surface until cool enough.

The gases uses are mostly Argon and Helium or mixtures of the two. Argon is the standard shielding gas. Helium, which is lighter than air, must be supplied with a higher flow than argon because it tends to rise. It transfers more heat than argon for the same current and voltage. Thus it may be needed to join metals of higher conductivity or heavy plates.

When extinguishing the arc at the end of the weld, it is important to let the gas flow for a certain time to shield the hot metal from air. Equipment provides a delay before shutting off the gas flow, but the welder must linger with the torch upon the weld as long as needed.

Most weldable metals can be welded by the GTAW process. It is adaptable to thin and delicate joints but also to thick and demanding applications, always of good quality although possibly not the most fast and economic process.

Aluminum alloys of the weldable kinds are among those for which GTAW is most suited. One should always remember that not all aluminum alloys can be welded successfully or with the same ease. For a reminder of the reasons making some of the strongest alloys non readily weldable by fusion processes see Aluminum Welding.

Joining is made difficult by the surface formation of tenacious refractory aluminum oxides of melting point much higher than that of aluminum metal. The oxides though are broken up by the cathodic cleaning action of the Electrode Positive part of the alternating current cycle. Once broken they may float upon the molten metal and they no longer interfere with the welding process. Therefore high frequency stabilized alternating current power supply is the most used GTAW process for aluminum with pure tungsten electrodes. Exceptionally, for thin sections, DCEP can be used with thoriated tungsten. Argon is the most used shielding gas.


Materials and Welding for Cryogenic Service

Vessels and pipelines designed to operate at very low temperatures(cryogenic) must be fabricated from materials and with techniques suitable to the service conditions.

The problems connected with the behavior of normal steels at low temperatures were first brought to attention at the end of World War II, when eight ships of the Liberty class where involved in spectacular disasters by their sudden brittle fracture in two parts under conditions of cold weather and high seas.

The investigations that followed were instrumental in discovering a new property, unheard of up to that time, called Fracture Toughness. Furthermore it was found that, in certain materials, ductility is strongly dependent upon temperature.

A special Drop-Weight Nil-Ductility-Test was introduced to help rating materials and processes and to determine the temperature above which a dynamic crack is arrested.

In normal steels perfectly ductile at room temperature, a gradual passage to brittle fracture susceptibility upon impact was found, strongly dependent on decreasing temperatures. The temperature range where this phenomenon occurs has been called the Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Structures made for service at low temperatures must therefore be made of materials that maintain adequate ductility at sub freezing conditions. Cryogenic alloys include austenitic stainless steels, manganese stainless steels, 9 Nickel steels, maraging steels, titanium, aluminum and nickel alloys.

A low cost way to measure the resistance of a weldment to impact fracture is performed by means of an Impact Toughness Testing on a specimen of specified geometry like the Charpy V-notch (CVN) test (ASTM E23). The amount of energy absorbed at any specified temperature during fracture is measured and recorded.

This test does not measure an inherent material property but results in a relative measure of impact toughness. The results permit to rate different materials and procedures in a database to be used for design and for inspection.

The specimen is oriented to have the notch and the expected plane of fracture run longitudinally through the weld metal. The test is conducted on welded specimens at the specified low temperature. The CVN absorbed energy result should be at least as specified by the requirements.

Cryogenic Tanks are used for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Cryogenic Ammonia and other products at cryogenic temperatures for storage and/or transportation.


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In-Demand Job in Oil & Gas Industry

Did you know that the most in-demand job in the Oil and Gas Industry are Welders and Welding Inspectors?

In Philippines alone, when you check the classified ads of Manila Bulletin every sunday, you can see a lot of vacancies for welders and Welding Inspectors (or in general, Inspectors). These vacancies are either local or overseas jobs.

Correct me if I am wrong. Check the Manila Bulletin every sunday to see it for yourself.

Some Welding Codes and Standards normally used in Construction

1.) AWS D1.1 - For Structural Welding
2.) API 1104 - For Pipeline
3.) ANSI B31.3 - For Process Piping
4.) ANSI B3.1 - For Power Piping
5.) ASME VIII Div. 1 - For Pressure Vessel
6.) API 650 - For Storage Tank